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nkhani

Chidule

Inductors ndizofunikira kwambiri pakusintha zosintha, monga kusungira mphamvu ndi zosefera zamagetsi. Pali mitundu yambiri ya inductors, monga ntchito zosiyanasiyana (kuyambira pafupipafupi mpaka pafupipafupi), kapena zida zingapo zoyambira zomwe zimakhudza mawonekedwe a inductor, ndi zina zambiri. Inductors omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito posintha ma switch ndi maginito apamwamba kwambiri. Komabe, chifukwa cha zinthu zosiyanasiyana monga zinthu, magwiridwe antchito (monga magetsi ndi zamakono), ndi kutentha kozungulira, mawonekedwe ndi malingaliro omwe aperekedwawa ndi osiyana kwambiri. Chifukwa chake, pakupanga kwa dera, kuphatikiza pazoyambira za mtengo wa inductance, ubale pakati pa impedance ya inductor ndi kukana kwa AC ndi pafupipafupi, kutayika kwakukulu ndi mawonekedwe amakono, etc. ziyenera kukumbukiridwabe. Nkhaniyi ifotokoza zida zingapo zofunikira za inductor ndi mawonekedwe ake, komanso kuwongolera akatswiri opanga mphamvu kuti asankhe omwe akupeza malonda.

Mawu Oyambirira

Inductor ndi gawo lamagetsi lamagetsi lamagetsi, lomwe limapangidwa ndikamazunguliza ma coil angapo (koyilo) pa bobbin kapena pachimake ndi waya wopanda waya. Koyilo kamatchedwa coil inductance kapena Inductor. Malinga ndi mfundo yamagetsi yamagetsi, ma coil ndi maginito akasunthika wina ndi mzake, kapena koyiloyo imapanga maginito osinthana kudzera pakasinthidwe kena, magetsi opangika amapangidwa kuti athe kulimbana ndi maginito oyambilira, ndipo chikhalidwe ichi choletsa kusintha kwapano kumatchedwa inductance.

Njira yopezera inductance ndiyofanana (1), yomwe ndiyofanana ndi maginito operewera, malo ozungulira amatembenukira N, ndi maginito ofanana ndi magawo oyandikana ndi Ae, ndipo ndi ofanana ndi maginito ofanana kutalika kwa kutalika le . Pali mitundu yambiri ya inductance, iliyonse yoyenera ntchito zosiyanasiyana; inductance imakhudzana ndi mawonekedwe, kukula, njira yokhotakhota, kuchuluka kwa kutembenuka, ndi mtundu wa maginito apakatikati.

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(1)

Kutengera mawonekedwe amtundu wachitsulo, inductance imaphatikizapo toroidal, E pachimake ndi ng'oma; Potengera chitsulo pachimake, pali makamaka ceramic pachimake ndi mitundu iwiri yofewa yamaginito. Ndi ferrite ndi ufa wachitsulo. Kutengera kapangidwe kake kapangidwe kake, pali mabala amtundu, osanjikiza, komanso owumbidwa, ndipo bala la waya silimatetezedwa ndipo theka la maginito guluu amatetezedwa (otetezedwa pang'ono) komanso otetezedwa (otetezedwa), ndi zina zambiri.

Inductor amachita ngati dera lalifupi pakadali pano, ndipo amawonetsa kusintha kwakanthawi posinthira pano. Zomwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pama circuits amaphatikizira kutsamwa, kusefa, kukonza, ndikusunga mphamvu. Pogwiritsa ntchito chosinthira chosinthira, inductor ndiye chinthu chofunikira kwambiri chosungira mphamvu, ndipo chimapanga fyuluta yotsika kwambiri yomwe imatulutsa capacitor kuti ichepetse mphamvu yamagetsi, motero imathandizanso pakusanja.

Nkhaniyi ifotokoza zinthu zingapo zoyambira za inductors ndi mawonekedwe awo, komanso zina zamagetsi zama inductors, ngati chofunikira pakuwunika posankha ma inductors panthawi yopanga dera. Muchitsanzo chofunsira, momwe mungawerengere mtengo wa inductance ndi momwe mungasankhire inductor wokhazikika wotsatsa zidziwitsidwa kudzera muzitsanzo zothandiza.

Mtundu wazinthu zoyambira

Inductors omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito posintha ma switch ndi maginito apamwamba kwambiri. Zinthu zoyambira pakatikati zimakhudza kwambiri mawonekedwe a inductor, monga impedance ndi pafupipafupi, mtengo wa inductance ndi pafupipafupi, kapena mawonekedwe oyambira. Zotsatirazi zikuwonetsa kuyerekezera kwa zida zingapo zachitsulo zodziwika bwino ndi mawonekedwe ake akachulukitsidwe ngati chofunikira pakusankha olowetsa magetsi:

1. pachimake Ceramic

Ceramic pachimake ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zofala zomwe zimathandizira inductance. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito popereka mawonekedwe othandizira akamagwiritsa ntchito coil. Amatchedwanso "mpweya pakati inductor". Chifukwa pachimake pachitsulo chomwe chimagwiritsidwa ntchito ndichinthu chopanda maginito chokhala ndi choyezera chotsika kwambiri, mtengo wa inductance ndiwokhazikika pamtundu wa kutentha. Komabe, chifukwa chosagwiritsa ntchito maginito ngati sing'anga, inductance ndiyotsika kwambiri, yomwe siyoyenera kugwiritsa ntchito osinthira magetsi.

2. Achinyamata

Phata la ferrite lomwe limagwiritsidwa ntchito pafupipafupi inductors ndi ferrite yomwe imakhala ndi faifi tambala (NiZn) kapena zinc manganese (MnZn), yomwe ndi yofewa yamagnetic ferromagnetic yopanda kukakamira pang'ono. Chithunzi 1 chikuwonetsa kupindika kwa hysteresis (BH loop) ya maginito ambiri. Mphamvu yokakamiza ya HC yamaginito amatchedwanso mphamvu yokakamiza, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti maginito atasungidwa kumaginito, maginito ake (magnetization) amachepetsedwa kukhala zero Mphamvu yamaginito yamagetsi panthawiyo. Kukakamiza kotsika kumatanthauza kutsutsana pang'ono ndi demagnetization komanso kumatanthauza kutsika kwa hysteresis

Manganese-zinc ndi nickel-zinc ferrites ali ndi kuthekera kocheperako (μr), pafupifupi 1500-15000 ndi 100-1000, motsatana. Mphamvu yawo yamaginito imapangitsa kuti chitsulo chikhale chapamwamba kwambiri. Kuchepetsa. Komabe, choyipa ndichakuti machulukitsidwe ake amakono amakhala otsika, ndipo pachimake pachitsulo pakakhuta, maginito operewera adzagwa kwambiri. Tchulani Chithunzi 4 pazocheperako kwama maginito operewera a ferrite ndi ufa wachitsulo chitsulo mukakhala chitsulo. Kuyerekeza. Mukagwiritsidwa ntchito popangira ma inductor, mpata wamlengalenga umatsalira pakuzungulira kwamaginito, komwe kumatha kuchepetsa kuloleza, kupewa kukhathamiritsa ndikusunga mphamvu zambiri; Pomwe mpweya umaphatikizidwanso, kufalikira komweko kumatha kukhala pafupifupi 20- Pakati pa 200. Popeza kutetezedwa kwakukulu kwa zinthuzo kumatha kuchepetsa kutayika komwe kumayambitsidwa ndi makono a eddy, kutayika kumakhala kotsika pafupipafupi, ndipo kumakhala koyenera ma frequency high transformers, EMI fyuluta inductors ndi osunga magetsi oyendetsa magetsi. Potengera mafupipafupi, faifi-zinc ferrite ndi yoyenera kugwiritsidwa ntchito (> 1 MHz), pomwe manganese-zinc ferrite ndioyenera magulu ocheperako (<2 MHz).

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Chithunzi 1. Mzere wa hysteresis wamaginito (BR: remanence; BSAT: saturation magnetic flux density)

3. Ufa chitsulo pachimake

Zipangizo zachitsulo zamafuta ndizofewa-maginito ferromagnetic zida. Amapangidwa ndi alloys achitsulo ufa wa zinthu zosiyanasiyana kapena ufa wachitsulo wokha. Njirayi imakhala ndi zinthu zopanda maginito okhala ndi mitundu yosiyanasiyana ya tinthu, motero kukhazikika kwake kumakhala kofatsa. Phukusi lachitsulo makamaka limakhala toroidal. Chithunzi 2 chikuwonetsa phulusa lachitsulo ndi mawonekedwe ake owonekera.

Mitengo yachitsulo yodziwika bwino imakhala ndi nickel-molybdenum alloy (MPP), sendust (Sendust), aloyi-nickel alloy (high flux) ndi ufa wachitsulo (iron iron). Chifukwa cha zinthu zosiyanasiyana, mawonekedwe ake ndi mitengo yake ndiyosiyana, zomwe zimakhudza kusankha kwa omwe amalembetsa. Otsatirawa afotokozera mitundu yomwe yatchulidwayi ndikuyerekeza mawonekedwe awo:

A. Iron-faifi tambala-molybdenum aloyi (MPP)

Alo-Ni-Mo aloyi ndi chidule cha MPP, chomwe ndi chidule cha ufa wa molypermalloy. Kuperewera kwake kuli pafupi 14-500, ndipo kukhathamiritsa kwa maginito kachulukidwe ndi pafupifupi 7500 Gauss (Gauss), yomwe ndiyokwera kuposa kuchuluka kwa maginito a ferrite (pafupifupi 4000-5000 Gauss). Ambiri kunja. MPP imakhala ndi chitsulo chochepa kwambiri ndipo imakhala ndi kutentha kwabwino kwambiri pakati pa ufa wachitsulo. Makina akunja a DC akafika pakukhazikika kwa ISAT pakadali pano, mtengo wa inductance umachepa pang'onopang'ono osasokoneza mwadzidzidzi. MPP imagwira bwino ntchito koma imakhala yokwera mtengo, ndipo imagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati inductor yamagetsi ndi kusefa kwa EMI kwa osintha magetsi.

 

B. Sendust

Chitsulo chachitsulo-silicon-aluminium alloy chitsulo ndichitsulo chachitsulo chopangidwa ndi chitsulo, silicon, ndi aluminium, chomwe chimakhala ndi maginito okwanira pafupifupi 26 mpaka 125. Kutaya kwachitsulo kuli pakati pa chitsulo cha ufa wachitsulo ndi MPP ndi alloy-nickel alloy . Kuchulukitsa kwa maginito otseguka ndikokwera kuposa MPP, pafupifupi 10500 Gauss. Kukhazikika kwakutentha ndi machulukitsidwe amakono ndi ochepa poyerekeza ndi MPP ndi chitsulo cha nickel, koma kuposa chitsulo cha ufa wachitsulo ndi ferrite pachimake, ndipo mtengo wake ndi wotsika mtengo kuposa MPP ndi aloyi wachitsulo. Amagwiritsidwa ntchito kwambiri pamafayilo a EMI, ma circuits of factor factor (PFC) ndi oyendetsa magetsi pakusintha magetsi.

 

C. Chitsulo cha nickel yachitsulo (kutuluka kwakukulu)

Chitsulo chachitsulo chachitsulo chimapangidwa ndi chitsulo ndi faifi tambala. Mphamvu yamaginito yopezeka pafupifupi 14-200. Kutaya kwachitsulo ndi kukhazikika kwa kutentha kuli pakati pa MPP ndi aloyi wa iron-silicon-aluminium. Chitsulo cha nickel yachitsulo chimakhala ndi maginito ochulukirapo kwambiri a maginito, pafupifupi 15,000 Gauss, ndipo imatha kupirira mafunde akukondera kwambiri a DC, ndipo mawonekedwe ake okondera a DC amakhalanso abwino. Kukula kwantchito: Kukonzekera kwamphamvu kwamagetsi, kusungitsa mphamvu yosungira mphamvu, kusefa kwamafyuluta, kusinthasintha kwakanthawi kosinthira kwa flyback, etc.

 

D. Ufa wachitsulo

Chitsulo cha ufa wachitsulo chimapangidwa ndi utoto wosalala wa chitsulo wokhala ndi tinthu tating'onoting'ono tomwe timasunthika wina ndi mnzake. Njira yopangira zinthu imapangitsa kuti pakhale kusiyana pakati pa mpweya. Kuwonjezera mawonekedwe mphete, wamba akalumikidzidwa chitsulo ufa pachimake alinso E-mtundu ndi mitundu mitundu. Mphamvu yamaginito yopezeka pachitsulo cha ufa wachitsulo ndi pafupifupi 10 mpaka 75, ndipo kukhathamiritsa kwamphamvu kwa maginito kachulukidwe ndi pafupifupi 15000 Gauss. Zina mwazitsulo zachitsulo zachitsulo, pachimake pa ufa wachitsulo pamakhala zotayika kwambiri koma mtengo wotsika kwambiri.

Chithunzi 3 chikuwonetsa ma BH curves a PC47 manganese-zinc ferrite opangidwa ndi TDK ndi zokutira zachitsulo -52 ndi -2 zopangidwa ndi MICROMETALS; mphamvu yamaginito yolemera ya manganese-zinc ferrite ndiyokwera kwambiri kuposa yamafuta achitsulo ndipo imakhuta Maginito a kachulukidwe kake amakhalanso osiyana kwambiri, ferrite ili pafupi 5000 Gauss ndipo pachimake cha ufa wachitsulo ndiposa 10000 Gauss.

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Chithunzi 3. BH curve of manganese-zinc ferrite and iron iron cores of different materials

 

Mwachidule, mawonekedwe okhutitsa pachimake chachitsulo ndi osiyana; kukhathamiritsa pakadutsa pano, maginito okhala ndi ferrite pachimake adzagwa kwambiri, pomwe phulusa lachitsulo limatha kuchepa pang'onopang'ono. Chithunzi 4 chikuwonetsa kutsika kwa maginito opumira phulusa lachitsulo chofanana ndi maginito operewera komanso ferrite yokhala ndi mpweya wokhala ndi mphamvu zosiyanasiyana zamaginito. Izi zikufotokozanso kuchepa kwa ferrite pachimake, chifukwa kuloleza kumatsika mwamphamvu pomwe pachimake pamakhala podzaza, monga titha kuwonera kuchokera ku equation (1), zimathandizanso kuti inductance igwere mwamphamvu; pomwe pachimake pa ufa wokhala ndi mpweya wogawika, maginito operewera Mlingo umachepa pang'onopang'ono pamene chitsulo chimakhala chodzaza, chifukwa chake inductance imachepa pang'ono, ndiye kuti, ili ndi mawonekedwe okondera a DC. Pakogwiritsa ntchito osintha magetsi, khalidweli ndilofunika kwambiri; ngati kuchepa kwakanthawi kwa inductor sikuli bwino, mphamvu ya inductor ikukwera mpaka pakukhutitsa pakadali pano, ndipo kugwa mwadzidzidzi kwa inductance kumapangitsa kupsinjika kwakanthawi kwa kristalo kosintha kukwera kwambiri, komwe kuli kosavuta kuwononga.

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Chithunzi 4. maginito permeability dontho makhalidwe a ufa chitsulo pachimake ndi ferrite pachimake chitsulo ndi mpweya kusiyana mphamvu osiyana maginito.

 

Inductor magetsi ndi mawonekedwe phukusi

Mukamapanga chosinthira ndikusankha inductor, mtengo wa inductance L, impedance Z, AC kukana ACR ndi Q mtengo (quality factor), yomwe idavoteledwa IDC ndi ISAT, komanso kutayika kwapakati (kutayika kwapakati) ndi zina zofunikira pamagetsi zonse ndiyofunika kuganiziridwa. Kuphatikiza apo, mamangidwe amtundu wa inductor amakhudza kukula kwa kutulutsa kwamaginito, komwe kumakhudzanso EMI. Otsatirawa akambirana mawonekedwe omwe atchulidwa pamwambapa padera ngati malingaliro posankha olowa m'malo.

1. Mtengo wamtengo wapatali (L)

Mtengo wa inductor wa inductor ndiye gawo lofunikira kwambiri pakupanga dera, koma liyenera kuwunikidwa ngati mtengo wa inductance uli wolimba pafupipafupi. Mtengo wodziwika wa inductance nthawi zambiri umayesedwa pa 100 kHz kapena 1 MHz popanda kukondera kwakunja kwa DC. Ndipo kuti muwonetsetse kuthekera kopanga makina ambiri, kulolerana kwa inductor nthawi zambiri kumakhala ± 20% (M) ndi ± 30% (N). Chithunzi 5 ndiye chithunzi cha ma inductance-pafupipafupi cha Taiyo Yuden inductor NR4018T220M yoyezedwa ndi mita ya LCR ya Wayne Kerr. Monga momwe tawonetsera pachithunzichi, kupindika kwake kwamtengo kumakhala kosalala pamaso pa 5 MHz, ndipo mtengo wa inductance utha kuwonedwa ngati wosasintha. M'bandi yapafupipafupi kwambiri chifukwa cha phokoso lomwe limapangidwa ndimphamvu yama parasitic ndi inductance, mtengo wa inductance udzawonjezeka. Mafupipafupi a resonance amatchedwa frequency-resonant frequency (SRF), yomwe nthawi zambiri imafunikira kukhala yokwera kwambiri kuposa pafupipafupi.

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Chithunzi 5, Taiyo Yuden NR4018T220M chithunzi chazithunzi zoyeserera

 

2. Kutha (Z)

Monga tawonera pa Chithunzi 6, chithunzi cha impedance chitha kuwonanso pakuwonetsetsa kwa ma inductance pama frequency osiyanasiyana. Kulephera kwa inductor kumakhala kofanana ndi mafupipafupi (Z = 2πfL), chifukwa chake kukwera kwamphamvu, kuyambiranso kumakhala kokulirapo kuposa kukana kwa AC, chifukwa chake impedance imakhala ngati inductance yoyera (gawo ndi 90˚). Nthawi zambiri, chifukwa cha mphamvu ya parasitic capacitance, nthawi yodziyimira pawokha ya impedance imatha kuwoneka. Pambuyo pake, impedance imagwa ndikukhala yopanda mphamvu, ndipo gawoli limasintha pang'onopang'ono mpaka -90 ˚.

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3. Mtengo wa Q ndi kukana kwa AC (ACR)

Q mtengo mukutanthauzira kwa inductance ndiye kuchuluka kwa kuyambiranso kukana, ndiye kuti, kuchuluka kwa gawo loyerekezera mpaka gawo lenileni la impedance, monga momwe zilili mu fomu (2).

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(2)

Komwe XL ndimachitidwe a inductor, ndipo RL ndikutsutsa kwa AC kwa inductor.

Pafupipafupi pafupipafupi, kukana kwa AC ndikokulirapo kuposa kuyambiranso komwe kumachitika chifukwa cha kutayika, chifukwa chake mtengo wake wa Q ndi wotsika kwambiri; pamene kuchuluka kumachulukirachulukira, kuyambiranso (pafupifupi 2πfL) kumakulanso ndikukula, ngakhale kukana chifukwa cha khungu (khungu) komanso kuyandikira (kuyandikira) zotsatira zake zimakulirakulira, ndipo mtengo wa Q ukukulirakulira pafupipafupi ; mukamayandikira SRF, kuyambiranso kwamkati pang'onopang'ono kumachepetsa ndi kuyambiranso kwa capacitive, ndipo mtengo wa Q umayamba kuchepa; SRF ikakhala ziro, chifukwa kuyambiranso kochitapo kanthu komanso kuyambiranso kwa capacitive kumafanana chimodzimodzi Kutha. Chithunzi 7 chikuwonetsa ubale pakati pa mtengo wa Q ndi pafupipafupi wa NR4018T220M, ndipo ubalewo uli ngati belu losokonekera.

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Chithunzi 7. Chiyanjano pakati pa mtengo wa Q komanso pafupipafupi cha Taiyo Yuden inductor NR4018T220M

Pamagulu azogwiritsira ntchito pafupipafupi, kuchuluka kwa Q kumakhala bwino; zikutanthauza kuti kuyankha kwake ndikokulirapo kuposa kukana kwa AC. Nthawi zambiri, mtengo wabwino kwambiri wa Q uposa 40, zomwe zikutanthauza kuti mtundu wa inductor ndi wabwino. Komabe, makamaka pamene kukondera kwa DC kukuwonjezeka, mtengo wa inductance umatsika ndipo mtengo wa Q nawonso utsika. Ngati waya wophatikizika kapena waya wophatikizika wagwiritsidwa ntchito, khungu, ndiye kuti, kukana kwa AC, kumatha kuchepetsedwa, ndipo mtengo wa inductor amathanso kukulitsidwa.

DCR kukana DCR nthawi zambiri kumawoneka ngati kukana kwa DC kwa waya wamkuwa, ndipo kukana kumatha kuwerengedwa molingana ndi kukula kwa waya ndi kutalika. Komabe, ambiri otsika pano a SMD inductors amagwiritsa ntchito akupanga kuwotcherera kuti apange mkuwa wa SMD pamalo opumira. Komabe, chifukwa waya wamkuwa siwotalikirapo ndipo mtengo wotsutsana siwokwera, kulimbikira kwa kuwotcherera nthawi zambiri kumapangitsa gawo lalikulu la kukana kwa DC konse. Kutenga TDK's waya-bala SMD inductor CLF6045NIT-1R5N monga chitsanzo, kuyeza kwa DC kukana ndi 14.6mΩ, ndipo kukana kwa DC komwe kumawerengedwa kutengera kukula kwa waya ndi kutalika ndi 12.1mΩ. Zotsatira zikuwonetsa kuti kukana kuwotcherera kumeneku kumakhudza pafupifupi 17% ya DC kukana konse.

AC kukana ACR imakhala ndi khungu komanso kuyandikira, komwe kumapangitsa kuti ACR iwonjezeke pafupipafupi; pakugwiritsa ntchito inductance wamba, chifukwa gawo la AC ndilotsika kwambiri kuposa gawo la DC, zomwe zimayambitsa ACR sizowonekera; koma pakatundu kakang'ono, Popeza gawo la DC lachepetsedwa, kutayika kochititsidwa ndi ACR sikunganyalanyazidwe. Khungu limatanthawuza kuti pansi pa mikhalidwe ya AC, magawikidwe apano mkati mwa kondakitala safanana ndipo amangokhala pamwamba pa waya, zomwe zimapangitsa kuti muchepetse gawo lofananira ndi waya, lomwe limakulitsanso kulimba kwa waya ndi mafupipafupi. Kuphatikiza apo, mukamazungulira waya, mawaya oyandikana nawo amathandizira kuwonjezera ndikuchotsa maginito chifukwa chamakono, kuti pakadali pano pakhale pafupi moyandikana ndi waya (kapena malo akutali kwambiri, kutengera kulondola kwa zomwe zikuchitika pano ), zomwe zimayambitsanso waya wolumikizana. Chodabwitsa chomwe dera limachepa ndipo kuwonjezeka kofananira kumakulitsa ndikomwe kumatchedwa kuyandikira; pakugwiritsa ntchito kwamakina oyenda mosiyanasiyana, zotsatira zoyandikana ndizowonekera kwambiri.

图片9  8

Chithunzi 8 chikuwonetsa ubale pakati pa kukana kwa AC komanso pafupipafupi kwa waya-bala SMD inductor NR4018T220M. Pafupipafupi 1kHz, kukana kuli pafupifupi 360mΩ; pa 100kHz, kukana kumakwera mpaka 775mΩ; pa 10MHz, mtengo wotsutsa uli pafupi 160Ω. Poyerekeza kutayika kwa mkuwa, kuwerengetsa kuyenera kulingalira za ACR yoyambitsidwa ndi khungu ndi zoyandikira, ndikuisintha kukhala chilinganizo (3).

4. Kukwaniritsa kwamakono (ISAT)

Kukwaniritsa pakadali pano ISAT nthawi zambiri kumakhala kosakondera komwe kumadziwika pakachepetsa kuchuluka kwa inductance monga 10%, 30%, kapena 40%. Pa mpweya wokhala ndi mpweya, chifukwa mawonekedwe ake amakono ndi achangu kwambiri, palibe kusiyana kwakukulu pakati pa 10% ndi 40%. Tchulani Chithunzi 4. Komabe, ngati ili phulusa lachitsulo (monga chosindikizira chosindikizira), kakhombedwe kake kakang'ono ndi kofatsa, monga zikuwonetsedwa pa Chithunzi 9, kukondera komwe kulipo pa 10% kapena 40% ya kuchepa kwazinthu zambiri zosiyana, chifukwa chake kukhathamiritsa kwamakono kudzakambidwa padera pamitundu iwiri yachitsulo motere.

Pampikisano wama air-ferrite, ndizomveka kugwiritsa ntchito ISAT ngati malire apamwamba pazomwe zilipo pakadali pano pazogwiritsa ntchito madera. Komabe, ngati ili pachimake pa ufa wachitsulo, chifukwa chakuchulukitsa pang'ono pang'onopang'ono, sipangakhale vuto ngakhale kutalika kwakanthawi kogwiritsa ntchito kupitako ISAT. Chifukwa chake, mawonekedwe achitsulo awa ndiabwino kwambiri pakusintha mapulogalamu osinthira. Polemedwa kwambiri, ngakhale kutayika kwa inductor ndikotsika, monga zikuwonetsedwa pa Chithunzi 9, zomwe zilipo pakali pano ndizokwera, koma kulolerana kwaposachedwa kwa capacitor ndikokwera, chifukwa sikudzakhala vuto. Pansi pa katundu wopepuka, mtengo wa inductor wa inductor ndi wokulirapo, womwe umathandiza kuchepetsa kupindika kwa inductor, potero kumachepetsa kutayika kwachitsulo. Chithunzi 9 chikuyerekeza kuyerekezera kwaposachedwa kwa TDK's bala ferrite SLF7055T1R5N ndi stamp iron iron core inductor SPM6530T1R5M pansi pamtengo wofanana wa inductance.

图片9   9

Chithunzi 9. Kukhathamiritsa kwapompopompo kwa bala ferrite ndi chidindo chachitsulo chosungunuka pachimake pamtengo wofanana wa inductance

5. Adavotera pano (IDC)

Mtengo wa IDC ndiye kukondera kwa DC kutentha kwa inductor kukwera ku Tr˚C. Malondawo akuwonetsanso kukana kwake kwa DC RDC ku 20˚C. Malinga ndi kutentha kozungulira kwa waya wamkuwa kuli pafupifupi 3,930 ppm, kutentha kwa Tr kukakwera, mtengo wake wotsutsana ndi RDC_Tr = RDC (1 + 0.00393Tr), ndikugwiritsa ntchito mphamvu zake ndi PCU = I2DCxRDC. Kutayika kwa mkuwa kumeneku kumawonongeka pamwamba pa inductor, ndipo kutentha kwa resistanceTH kwa inductor kumatha kuwerengedwa:

图片13(2)

Tebulo 2 limatanthauza pepala lazosanja za TDK VLS6045EX (6.0 × 6.0 × 4.5mm), ndipo imawerengera kukana kwamatenthedwe pakukwera kwa kutentha kwa 40˚C. Zachidziwikire, kwa inductors amndandanda womwewo ndi kukula kwake, kuyerekezera kwamphamvu kwamatenthedwe kumakhala kofanana chifukwa cha malo omwewo otaya kutentha kwapamwamba; Mwanjira ina, IDC yovoteledwa pakadali pano ya inductors osiyanasiyana akhoza kuyerekezedwa. Mitundu yosiyanasiyana yama phukusi a inductors ali ndi matenthedwe osiyanasiyana. Gulu 3 ikufanizira kukana kwamphamvu kwa inductors a TDK VLS6045EX mndandanda (semi-shielded) ndi SPM6530 mndandanda (wopangidwa). Kukula kwakulimbirana kwa matenthedwe, kumakwezanso kutentha komwe kumachitika pamene inductance imadutsa pakali pano; apo ayi, zotsika.

图片14  (2)

Gulu 2. Kutentha kwamphamvu kwa VLS6045EX mndandanda wama inductors pakukwera kwa kutentha kwa 40˚C

Titha kuwona kuchokera pagome lachitatu kuti ngakhale kukula kwa inductors ndikofanana, kukana kwamphamvu kwa ma inductors omwe ali ndi stamp ndikotsika, ndiye kuti kutentha kwa kutentha ndikwabwino.

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Gulu 3. Kuyerekeza kukana kwamatenthedwe kwama phukusi osiyanasiyana.

 

6. Kore imfa

Kutayika kwakukulu, komwe kumatchedwa kutayika kwachitsulo, kumachitika makamaka chifukwa cha kutayika kwamtundu wamakono ndi kuwonongeka kwa hysteresis. Kukula kwa kutayika kwamakonoko makamaka kumadalira ngati zinthu zoyambira ndizosavuta "kuzichita"; ngati madutsidwewo ndi okwera, ndiye kuti, kutaya mphamvu kumakhala kotsika, kutayika kwamtunduwu ndikokwera, ndipo ngati kulimbikira kwa ferrite ndikokwera, kutayika kwamakono kumakhala kotsika. Kutayika kwaposachedwa kwa Eddy kumakhudzanso pafupipafupi. Kutalika kwafupipafupi, kumawonjezera kutayika kwamakono. Chifukwa chake, zomwe zili pachimake zimazindikira kuchuluka kwa magwiridwe antchito oyambira. Nthawi zambiri, magwiridwe antchito achitsulo cha ufa wachitsulo amatha kufikira 1MHz, ndipo magwiridwe antchito a ferrite amatha kufikira 10MHz. Ngati mafupipafupi ogwiritsira ntchito amapitilira pafupipafupi, zotayika zomwe zikuwonongeka pano zidzawonjezeka kwambiri ndipo kutentha kwachitsulo kumakulanso. Komabe, ndikukula kwachangu kwa zida zachitsulo, ma cores azitsulo okhala ndi ma frequency apamwamba akuyenera kukhala mozungulira.

Kutaya kwina kwachitsulo ndikutaya kwa hysteresis, komwe kuli kofanana ndi dera lotsekedwa ndi khola la hysteresis, lomwe limakhudzana ndi matalikidwe azigawo za AC pakadali pano; pamene kuthamanga kwa AC kumakulirakulira, kumawonjezera kutaya kwa hysteresis.

Mukuzungulira kofananira kwa inductor, cholumikizira cholumikizidwa chimodzimodzi ndi inductor chimagwiritsidwa ntchito nthawi zambiri kufotokoza kutaya kwachitsulo. Pafupipafupi pamene pali ofanana ndi SRF, kuyambiranso mwachangu ndi kutulutsa kwama capacitive kumatha, ndipo magwiridwe omwewo ndi zero. Pakadali pano, impedance ya inductor ndiyofanana ndi kukana kwachitsulo kotsatizana ndi kukana kumazungulira, ndipo kukana kwachitsulo ndikokulirapo kuposa kukana kumazungulira, chifukwa chake impedance ku SRF ili pafupifupi yofanana ndi kukana kwachitsulo. Kutenga inductor yamagetsi ochepa, mwachitsanzo, kutaya kwake kwachitsulo ndi pafupifupi 20kΩ. Ngati mphamvu yamagetsi yogwira bwino kumapeto onse a inductor akuti ndi 5V, kutaya kwake kwachitsulo kuli pafupifupi 1.25mW, zomwe zikuwonetsanso kuti kulimba kwa chitsulo ndikulimba, kumakhala bwino.

7. Chishango kapangidwe

Kapangidwe ka ma ferrite inductors amaphatikizira osatetezedwa, otetezedwa ndi maginito guluu, komanso kutetezedwa, ndipo pali mpata wambiri pakati pawo. Zachidziwikire, mpata wamlengalenga umakhala ndi kutayikira kwamaginito, ndipo poyipa kwambiri, kusokoneza mabwalo ang'onoang'ono ozungulira, kapena ngati pali maginito pafupi, kusinthanso kwake kudzasinthidwa. Makina ena opakidwa ndi osakanizidwa ndi ufa wachitsulo. Popeza mulibe mpata mkati mwa inductor ndipo mawonekedwe ake ndi olimba, vuto la kutaya kwa maginito ndikochepa. Chithunzi 10 ndikugwiritsa ntchito FFT ntchito ya RTO 1004 oscilloscope kuyeza kukula kwa kutulutsa kwa maginito pamtunda wa 3mm pamwambapa ndi mbali ya inductor. Tebulo 4 limatchula kuyerekezera kwa kutulutsa kwa maginito kwama inductors osiyanasiyana. Zitha kuwonedwa kuti ma inductors osatetezedwa ali ndi kutayika kwakukulu kwamaginito; Inductors osindikizidwa ali ndi kutayikira kwakung'ono kwambiri kwamaginito, kuwonetsa maginito otetezera abwino kwambiri. . Kusiyanitsa kwakukula kwa kutulutsa kwa maginito kwama inductors amalo awiriwa ndi pafupifupi 14dB, yomwe ili pafupifupi kasanu.

10图片16

Chithunzi 10. Kukula kwa maginito omwe amatayikira amayeza pa 3mm pamwambapa ndi mbali ya chosindikizira

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Gulu 4. Kuyerekeza kwa kutulutsa kwa maginito kwama inductors osiyanasiyana

8. kulumikiza

Muzinthu zina, nthawi zina pamakhala ma seti angapo a ma DC otembenuza pa PCB, omwe nthawi zambiri amakonzedwa moyandikana, ndipo omwe amalowetsa nawo amakonzekereranso pafupi. Ngati mugwiritsa ntchito mtundu wosatetezedwa kapena wotchinga pang'ono wokhala ndi maginito guluu Inductors atha kuphatikizana kuti apange zosokoneza za EMI. Chifukwa chake, poyika inductor, ndikulimbikitsidwa kuti muyambe kuyika poyambira poyambira, ndikulumikiza poyambira ndi poyambira pakatikati pa inductor pamagetsi osinthira osinthira, monga VSW ya buck converter, ndilo mfundo yosuntha. Malo ogulitsira amalumikizidwa ndi linanena bungwe capacitor, ndiye malo amodzi; waya wamkuwa wamtunduwu motero umapanga mulingo wina wamagetsi otetezedwa. Pakukonzekera kwa zingwe kwa multiplexer, kukonza polarity ya inductance kumathandizira kukonza kukula kwa kulumikizana ndikupewa mavuto ena osayembekezereka a EMI.

Mapulogalamu:

Chaputala cham'mbuyomo chidafotokoza zofunikira, kapangidwe ka phukusi, komanso mawonekedwe ofunikira amagetsi. Mutu uno udzafotokoza momwe mungasankhire mtengo woyenera wa osintha ndalama ndi zomwe mungasankhe inductor wogulitsa.

Monga zikuwonetsedwa mu equation (5), mtengo wa inductor ndi kusinthasintha kwakanthawi kosinthira kumakhudza inductor ripple current (ΔiL). Mphamvu yolowera inductor idzayenda kudzera mu capacitor yotulutsa ndikukhudza kulowerera kwapompopompo kwa capacitor kotulutsa. Chifukwa chake, zidzakhudza kusankha kwa capacitor yotulutsa ndikuwonjeza kukula kwa mphamvu yamagetsi yotulutsa. Kuphatikiza apo, mtengo wa inductance ndi kutulutsa kwake kwa capacitance kudzakhudzanso kapangidwe kabwino ka dongosololi komanso kuyankha kwamphamvu kwa katunduyo. Kusankha mtengo wokulirapo wokulirapo kumachepetsa kupsinjika kwakanthawi pa capacitor, komanso kumathandizanso kuti muchepetse mphamvu yamagetsi ndipo kumatha kusunga mphamvu zambiri. Komabe, mtengo wokulirapo wokulirapo ukuwonetsa kuchuluka kwakukulu, ndiye kuti mtengo wokwera. Chifukwa chake, pakupanga chosinthira, kapangidwe ka mtengo wa inductance ndikofunikira kwambiri.

图片18        (5)

Zitha kuwonedwa kuchokera pa fomula (5) kuti pomwe kusiyana pakati pamagetsi olowera ndi kutulutsa kwamagetsi kukukulirakulira, mphamvu yolowera inductor ikulirakulira, zomwe ndizoyipa kwambiri pakupanga kwa inductor. Kuphatikizana ndi kusanthula kwina kopitilira muyeso, kapangidwe kake kosintha kosintha koyenera kumasankhidwa nthawi zambiri pamakhala mphamvu yamagetsi yolowera ndi katundu wathunthu.

Mukamapanga mtengo wa inductance, ndikofunikira kupanga malonda pakati pa ma inductor ripple pakadali pano ndi kukula kwa inductor, ndi chinthu cholowerera chomwe chilipo (ripple current factor; γ) chimafotokozedwa pano, monga momwe zimakhalira (6).

图片196)

Kusintha chilinganizo (6) mu chilinganizo (5), mtengo wa inductance ungathe kuwonetsedwa ngati chilinganizo (7).

图片20  7)

Malinga ndi chilinganizo (7), kusiyana pakati pamagetsi olowera ndi kutulutsa ndikokulirapo, γ mtengo ukhoza kusankhidwa wokulirapo; m'malo mwake, ngati magetsi ndi zotulutsa zili pafupi, kapangidwe kake kofunika kukhala kakang'ono. Kuti musankhe pakati pakapangidwe kazinthu pakadali pano ndi kukula kwake, malinga ndi luso lakapangidwe kamapangidwe, usually nthawi zambiri amakhala 0.2 mpaka 0.5. Otsatirawa akutenga RT7276 monga chitsanzo kuti chiwonetsere kuwerengedwa kwa kutayika komanso kusankhidwa kwa omwe amalowa nawo malonda.

Chitsanzo chapangidwe: Yopangidwa ndi RT7276 yotsogola pafupipafupi (Advanced Constant On-Time; ACOT TM) chosinthira chosinthira chosinthira, kusinthasintha kwake ndi 700 kHz, magetsi olowera ndi 4.5V mpaka 18V, ndipo magetsi ake ndi 1.05V . Katundu wathunthu pano ndi 3A. Monga tafotokozera pamwambapa, mtengo wa inductance uyenera kupangidwa malinga ndi kuchuluka kwamagetsi okwanira a 18V ndi katundu wathunthu wa 3A, mtengo wa γ umatengedwa ngati 0.35, ndipo mtengo pamwambapa umasinthidwa kukhala equation (7), inductance mtengo ndi

图片21

 

Gwiritsani ntchito inductor yokhala ndi phindu wamba la 1.5 µH. Njira yothandizira (5) kuwerengera ma inductor apompopompo motere.

图片22

Chifukwa chake, pachimake pakali pano pa inductor ndi

图片23

Ndipo mtengo wogwira wa inductor current (IRMS) ndi

图片24

Chifukwa chophatikizira cha inductor ndi chaching'ono, kufunikira kwa inductor pakadali makamaka gawo lake la DC, ndipo kufunikira kotereku kumagwiritsidwa ntchito ngati maziko osankhira inductor omwe adavotera IDC yapano. Ndi kapangidwe ka 80% kochepetsa (kunyoza), zomwe zimafunikira kuti muchite ndi:

 

L = 1.5 µH (100 kHz), IDC = 3.77 A, ISAT = 4.34 A

 

Gulu 5 limatchula ma inductors omwe alipo osiyanasiyana a TDK, ofanana kukula koma osiyana ndi kapangidwe kake. Zitha kuwonedwa patebulopo kuti machulukitsidwe amakono ndi omwe adavoteledwa pano a stamp inductor (SPM6530T-1R5M) ndi akulu, ndipo kukana kwamatenthedwe ndikochepa ndipo kutaya kwanyengo kuli bwino. Kuphatikiza apo, malinga ndi zokambirana zomwe zidachitika m'mutu wapitawu, zomwe zidapangidwa ndi inductor ndichitsulo cha ufa wachitsulo, chifukwa chake zimafaniziridwa ndi ferrite pachimake cha otetezedwa (VLS6045EX-1R5N) komanso otetezedwa (SLF7055T-1R5N) ndi guluu wamaginito. , Ali ndi mawonekedwe abwino a DC. Chithunzi 11 chikuwonetsa kuyerekezera koyenera kwa ma inductors osiyanasiyana omwe amagwiritsidwa ntchito pa RT7276 yotsogola nthawi zonse yolumikizira yolumikizira. Zotsatira zikuwonetsa kuti kusiyana koyenera pakati pa atatuwa sikofunikira. Ngati mungaganizire kutaya kwanyengo, mawonekedwe okondera a DC komanso zovuta zakumapeto kwa maginito, tikulimbikitsidwa kuti mugwiritse ntchito inductors a SPM6530T-1R5M.

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Gulu 5. Kuyerekeza ma inductances amitundu yosiyanasiyana ya TDK

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Chithunzi 11. Kuyerekeza magwiridwe antchito mosiyanasiyana ndi ma inductors osiyanasiyana

Ngati musankha phukusi lofananira ndi mtengo wa inductance, koma ochepa omwe amalowetsa, monga SPM4015T-1R5M (4.4 × 4.1 × 1.5mm), ngakhale kukula kwake kuli kochepa, koma DC kukana RDC (44.5mΩ) ndi kukana kwa matenthedwe ΘTH ( 51˚C) / W) Kukulirapo. Kwa otembenuza omwe ali ndi mafotokozedwe omwewo, kufunikira kwa zomwe zimayimitsidwa ndi inductor ndizofanana. Zachidziwikire, kukana kwa DC kumachepetsa kuyendetsa bwino polemetsa. Kuphatikiza apo, kulimbana kwakukulu kwa matenthedwe kumatanthauza kutaya kwakanthawi kochepa. Chifukwa chake, posankha inductor, sikofunikira kungoganizira za phindu locheperako, komanso kuwunika zolakwikazo.

 

Pomaliza

Inductance ndi chimodzi mwazinthu zomwe zimagwiritsidwa ntchito posintha magetsi, omwe atha kugwiritsidwa ntchito posungira magetsi ndi kusefa. Komabe, pakupanga madera, sizofunikira za inductance zokha zomwe zimayenera kulabadira, koma magawo ena kuphatikiza kukana kwa AC ndi mtengo wa Q, kulolerana pakadali pano, kukhathamira kwachitsulo, ndi dongosolo la phukusi, ndi zina zambiri, ndi magawo onse omwe ayenera angaganizidwe posankha inductor. . Magawo awa nthawi zambiri amakhala okhudzana ndi zofunikira, kapangidwe kake, kukula kwake ndi mtengo wake. Chifukwa chake, nkhaniyi ikufotokoza mawonekedwe azinthu zosiyanasiyana zachitsulo komanso momwe mungasankhire koyenera kutengera momwe angagwiritsire ntchito magetsi.

 


Post nthawi: Jun-15-2021